Magnesium (Mg2+) is the 4th most abundant essential mineral naturally present in the human body. 
It is involved in over 600 cellular reactions in the body, from DNA and RNA formation to heart rhythm maintenance and energy production.
Despite its value, as many as 75% of Americans are not getting enough of it.
Magnesium deficiency is linked to a variety of negative health outcomes including depression, migraines, poor sleep, weakness, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
These are some of the reasons we decided to create and share Mellö, our magnesium superblend, with the world.
This article explains what magnesium is, what it does for the body, its health benefits, the consequences of magnesium deficiency, and how to up your intake.
Maintains Brain Functioning
Magnesium is essential for normal brain function. It plays a role in nerve signaling between the brain and body, helps protect cells from excitotoxicity, and improves cerebral blood flow.
Magnesium inhibits the actions of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Too much glutamate is bad and can damage or even kill brain cells.
When brain cells are at rest, magnesium acts as a gatekeeper for the calcium channel of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. In healthy adults, magnesium sits inside of calcium channels and prevents calcium from entering. This prevents the NMDA receptors from being stimulated by weak signals that may trigger your nerve cells unnecessarily.
An influx of calcium and glutamate into the brain is considered to be a major contributor to brain cell damage and cell death. So, it’s pretty important to have enough magnesium to keep your calcium channels adequately blocked from excessive stimulation.
In addition to its nerve signaling activities, magnesium also relaxes vascular smooth. This results in the dilation of blood vessels which decreases blood pressure and increases blood flow to the brain.
Maintains Heart Rhythm
Magnesium plays an important role in healthy heartbeat and magnesium deficiency has been linked to heart rhythm changes.
As they do in the brain, magnesium and calcium naturally compete with each other in heart cells to produce heart contractions.
Upon entering heart muscle cells, calcium stimulates the muscle fibers to contract. In response, magnesium counters this contraction by providing a tiny positive charge that repels calcium and pushes it to the opposite side of the cell. This leads the cells to relax. Thus creating healthy heart rhythm.
Hence, whereas a shortage of calcium is likely to cause a weakened heartbeat, a shortage of magnesium may lead calcium to overstimulate heart muscle cells. One common symptom of calcium overstimulation is rapid or irregular heart beat which could be life threatening. 
Regulates Muscle Contractions
Magnesium is critical to relaxing muscle contractions. Its major effect in muscles is to act as a calcium blocker at receptor sites that bind magnesium and calcium competitively. This helps muscles relax.
Calcium binds to muscle proteins such as troponin, parvalbumin, and myosin. In doing so it changes the shape of these proteins, which generates a muscle contraction.
Just as it does in cells of the brain and heart, magnesium competes with calcium to counteract its excitatory effects in muscle cells. In a relaxed muscle these calcium magnesium receptor sites are essentially saturated with magnesium.
If magnesium levels are low and there is not enough magnesium to compete with calcium, muscles may contract excessively causing spasms or cramps.
Creates Cellular Energy
Magnesium is a cofactor for enzymes that produce cellular energy.
A cofactor is a metallic ion (like magnesium) or non-protein chemical compound that is needed for an enzyme’s activity as a catalyst. Enzymes speed up or catalyze chemical reactions in our body.
Magnesium activates these energy producing enzymes which create metabolic pathways that convert inputs like glucose sugars into smaller molecules called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.
ATP is the body’s main unit of cellular energy. It is responsible for storing and shuttling energy. Every cell manufactures and uses ATP.
When cells want to carry out functions like cellular division or moving molecules across cell membranes they use ATP bound to a magnesium ion. When it is used, ATP is broken down into ADP. ADP is then recycled back into ATP inside of cells’ mitochondria.
The process of changing ADP back into ATP is magnesium dependent. An average ATP molecule in the human body is recycled thousands of times a day.
Cells and therefore organisms cannot survive without ATP and fueling continuous ATP production requires a continuous magnesium supply.
Enables Protein Synthesis
Stringing together amino acids to make proteins requires magnesium.
Magnesium is a cofactor for most of the critical enzymes that make protein synthesis possible.
Magnesium is also critical to the proper activity of ribosomes. Ribosomes, while not technically enzymes are the most important catalysts for stitching together amino acids to form proteins.
Makes And Repairs DNA
Magnesium is an essential cofactor for the enzyme DNA polymerase.
DNA polymerase repairs and replicates DNA strands using spare nucleotides from the cell's nucleus. DNA polymerase activity is necessary for repair, growth, and the formation of sperm and egg cells.
DNA polymerase has two magnesium binding sites and cannot work without magnesium.
Every day hundreds of billions of cell divisions occur in our body. Each cell division requires the cell to copy an identical set of DNA strands. Magnesium makes this possible by binding to DNA polymerase enzymes.
Magnesium bound DNA polymerase enzymes attach to strands of DNA and travel down the sequence of nucleotides. As they travel, magnesium ions bound to the DNA polymerase help open up the nucleotide side, drawing the spare nucleotides into position.
Reportedly, DNA polymerase is pretty accurate at copying DNA. However, even if copies are perfect, mistakes in DNA sequencing do occur. DNA damage can occur as a result of various triggers including viruses, temperature changes, radiation, or in response to reactive toxic chemicals.
Our bodies have a series of processes to identify and repair damaged DNA. The enzymes behind these processes cut away the damaged nucleotides and replace them with fresh nucleotides. Magnesium is a cofactor for most of these enzymes.
Sufficient magnesium levels are critical to staying alive and well. Whereas magnesium deficiency has been linked to a domino effect of horrible health outcomes.
That said, eating excessive amounts of magnesium, beyond what your body uses every day is not likely to yield any additional health benefits.
Here are some examples of what researchers have learned about the varied health benefits of adequate magnesium intake.
Allows You To Use Vitamin D
Vitamin D has dominated this year’s news cycle because studies linked vitamin D deficiency to poor Covid-19 outcomes. In order to be used by the body, however, vitamin D needs magnesium to metabolize it. Otherwise, vitamin D just sits around inactive waiting for magnesium to come around and put it to work.
Builds Bone Density
About 60% of our body’s magnesium is stored in our bones. Magnesium can directly affect bones by altering bone crystal structure and by acting on bone cells. It can also affect bones indirectly by impacting pathways related to inflammation, endothelial function, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D.
Fuels Immune Response
Since it is involved in the most basic cellular processes it is unsurprising that evidence shows magnesium plays a key role in the immune response.
Magnesium is a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis (i.e. antibody formation). Immunoglobulins are antibodies, or plasma produced Y shaped proteins with antigen specific binding sites.
Antigens are any foreign invaders like viruses, bacteria, fungi, tumor cells, or allergens that we don’t want inside of our bodies.
Antibodies are made in response to specific invaders, so a flu antibody cannot go attach itself to the coronavirus protein. At the top of each Y protein antibodies have 2 foreign invader specific binding sites that they use to attach themselves to particles that need eliminating.
When antibodies bind to foreign invaders they neutralize them. This prevents the foreign particles from interacting with healthy cells, consequent cellular damage and invasion.
Since antibodies are proteins, each one needs some magnesium to be created.
Magnesium is also a cofactor for antibody-dependent cytolysis, or the killing of foreign invaders once they have been caught by antibodies.
These are just 2 of the many ways that magnesium is involved in strong immune response. Others include being a cofactor for C’3 convertase, immune cell adherence, lgM lymphocyte binding, macrophage response to lymphokines and T helper-B cell adherence.
Magnesium is involved in and critical to everything that happens inside of our bodies. As such, healthy levels of magnesium will aid every system and process in the body. So if you are magnesium deficient and you are wondering whether adding magnesium to your diet will help improve any condition, the answer is most likely yes.
Magnesium is found in many delicious foods. However, soil depleting farming practices and overprocessing within our food supply chain have resulted in a shortage of magnesium from our daily dietary intake.
Magnesium is abundant in the chlorophyll of plants, so a good rule of thumb is: the greener a plant is, the more magnesium it's likely to contain.
The recommended daily intake of magnesium is 400-420 mg for men and 310-320 mg for women. For men, that’s the equivalent of eating about 100 apples or around 3 cups of boiled spinach daily. However, bone expert Dr. Susan Brown, Ph.D, recommends that adults consume 600 mg of magnesium each day.
The amount of magnesium your body actually needs to thrive and repair itself each day depends on how strenuous your days are, your genetic ability (or lack thereof) to absorb magnesium, and a variety of other factors.
Alcohol consumption, smoking, certain medications, and certain diseases can also affect your magnesium absorption and excretion.
If you exercise or even think more than average, you will need more than the average recommended amount of daily magnesium to complete all of the additional cellular processes your body is performing. Every extra muscle contraction, heartbeat and neuronal signal counts.
If your body has a shortage of magnesium, it will have to make potentially costly decisions. You don’t want to be in a position where the magnesium ions needed for 10 extra steps and 30 extra heartbeats are limiting the magnesium ions available for DNA repair or immune cell production.
|Food||Milligrams (mg) per serving||RDI (based on 420 mg/day)|
|Pumpkin seeds, roasted, 1 ounce (28 grams)||156||37%|
|Almonds, roasted, 1 ounce (28 grams)||80||19%|
Spinach, boiled, 1/2 cup (113) grams
|Dark chocolate, 1 ounce (28 grams)||64||15%|
|Quinoa, cooked, 1/2 cup (90 grams)||59||14%|
|Arugula, raw, 5 cups (100 grams)||47||11%|
|Potato, baked with skin, 3.5 ounces (100 grams)||43||10%|
|Avocado, sliced, 1 cup (146 grams)||42||10%|
|Tofu, 1/2 cup (124 grams)||37||
|Egg noodles, cooked, 1 cup (160 grams)||34||8%|
|Banana, 1 medium (100 grams)||27||
|Salmon, cooked, 3 ounces (85 grams)||26||
|Bread, whole wheat, 1 slice (25 grams)||21||
|Romaine lettuce, 3 ounces (85 grams)||12||
|Apple, 1 medium (100 grams)||5||
Many of us, including myself, struggle to get the daily magnesium we need through food alone. As you can see in this chart, it can be somewhat challenging to consume 300 mg of magnesium let alone the 600 mg recommended by Dr. Brown.
How much magnesium we actually absorb from the foods we eat can vary based on our bodies and the other components of our meals. Fat and calcium, for instance, can both affect magnesium absorption.
Supplements can help you maintain healthy and balanced magnesium levels throughout the day.
Chelated magnesium is in a form that is bound to amino acids. Supplements with chelated magnesium offer superior bioavailability and stability, which allows for more nutrients to be available for use by the body.
Magnesium gluconate, magnesium L-threonate, and magnesium citrate are three forms of highly functional and easily absorbable magnesium supplement.
Ned's chelated Magnesium Superblend features these three forms of magnesium, GABA, L-Theanine, and trace minerals. Check out The Secret's In The Superblend and learn why these ingredients are key to brain, gut, blood, bone and muscle health.
The Bottom Line
Magnesium is an essential mineral critical to cell life.
It is needed for hundreds of cellular reactions, enzyme activation, and cell signaling.
Without magnesium all of our cells would die.
Despite this, few people meet the recommended daily intake of 310-320 mg for women and 400-420 mg for men.
If your body is magnesium deficient, it will have to decide which cellular processes get the limited amount that is available. Things will start to go haywire. You may begin to notice odd eye twitches, calf cramps, headaches, sadness, or fatigue.
To increase your dietary intake of magnesium, eat more green vegetables like spinach and arugula, nuts, quinoa and dark chocolate.
Magnesium supplements, like Mellö, our magnesium superblend, can also help. Make sure the supplement you choose has high bioavailability so that it can be efficiently absorbed and used by the body.
 Tam, M., Gómez, S., González-Gross, M. et al. Possible roles of magnesium on the immune system. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 1193–1197 (2003).
 de Baaij, J. H., Hoenderop, J. G., & Bindels, R. J. (2015). Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiological reviews, 95(1), 1–46.
 Anne Marie Uwitonze, Mohammed S. Razzaque. Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and Function. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 2018; 118 (3): 181
 Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Nutrition, Trauma, and the Brain; Erdman J, Oria M, Pillsbury L, editors. Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute Health Outcomes in Military Personnel. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. 12, Magnesium.
 Nielsen, F. H., Milne, D. B., Klevay, L. M., Gallagher, S., & Johnson, L. (2007). Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 26(2), 121–132.
 Faryadi, Q. (2012). The magnificent effect of magnesium to human health: a critical review. International Journal of Applied, 2(3).
 Efstratiadis, G., Sarigianni, M., & Gougourelas, I. (2006). Hypomagnesemia and cardiovascular system. Hippokratia, 10(4), 147–152.
 Potter, J. D., Robertson, S. P., & Johnson, J. D. (1981, December). Magnesium and the regulation of muscle contraction. In Federation proceedings (Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 2653-2656).
 Fox, C., Ramsoomair, D., & Carter, C. (2001). Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. Southern medical journal, 94(12), 1195-1202.
 Apell, H. J., Hitzler, T., & Schreiber, G. (2017). Modulation of the Na, K-ATPase by magnesium ions. Biochemistry, 56(7), 1005-1016.
 Flowers, T. J., & Dalmond, D. (1992). Protein synthesis in halophytes: the influence of potassium, sodium and magnesium in vitro. Plant and Soil, 146(1-2), 153-161.
 Rozov, A., Khusainov, I., El Omari, K., Duman, R., Mykhaylyk, V., Yusupov, M., ... & Yusupova, G. (2019). Importance of potassium ions for ribosome structure and function revealed by long-wavelength X-ray diffraction. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-12.
 Yang, L., Arora, K., Beard, W. A., Wilson, S. H., & Schlick, T. (2004). Critical role of magnesium ions in DNA polymerase β's closing and active site assembly. Journal of the american chemical society, 126(27), 8441-8453.
 Hartwig, A. (2001). Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 475(1-2), 113-121.
 Rude, R. K., Singer, F. R., & Gruber, H. E. (2009). Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28(2), 131-141.
 Cohen, L., & Kitzes, R. (1981). Infrared spectroscopy and magnesium content of bone mineral in osteoporotic women. Israel journal of medical sciences, 17(12), 1123-1125.
 Castiglioni, S., Cazzaniga, A., Albisetti, W., & Maier, J. A. (2013). Magnesium and osteoporosis: current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients, 5(8), 3022–3033.
 Rude, Robert K., Frederick R. Singer, and Helen E. Gruber. "Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency." Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28.2 (2009): 131-141.
 Kubenam, K. S. (1994). The role of magnesium in immunity. Journal of Nutritional Immunology, 2(3), 107-126.
 Galland L. (1988). Magnesium and immune function: an overview. Magnesium, 7(5-6), 290–299.